Actions at Crisis Situations



  • Who is calling (your name);
  • Please speak clearly and slowly about the problem: “fire”, are there any suffered or endangered people and then specify the address (town, quarter, street, No, near crossing street);
  • If you have injured people please immediately call up for help with a high voice.

Without taking any unnecessary personal risk – try to extinguish the fire with a fire extinguisher or with available means.

How is this done with a fire extinguisher?:

  1. Pull out the safety pin;
  2. Press the handle and direct the stream close to the basis of the flame;
  3. Hold firmly the guiding device.

Stop extinguishing the fire if you notice it spreads to the upper part of the room or towards the exit and escape outside immediately. Close the windows and doors of the rooms before you leave them. Get out quickly without thinking about values and money. Do not go back.

Use evacuation stairs or emergency stairs for evacuation. Never use the elevators. If you are in an elevator during the fire, please stop on the nearest floor and leave it. If at your evacuation the evacuation routes are smoked, start moving as low as possible because there the temperature is lower and the visibility is better.

If you cannot leave your home due to smoke or high temperature, please go to the bathroom, close the door, place wet towels under the door and wait for the fire personnel.

When you are in premises with many people (theatres, cinemas, sports halls, stadiums, shopping centers, etc.) and a fire alarm is given, please make the following:

  • It is essential that you do not panic and stay calm. Your panic can also be handed over to the people around you;
  • Please follow the evacuation signs and leave the premises without moving and colliding other people;
  • Use evacuation routes and exits to exit the premises. Do not jump from heights;
  • Do not return to the building if you have forgotten something.


Please use a fire extinguisher to extinguish small fires. Water can also be used if the fire is not of electrical or chemical nature. If the fire is too large to extinguish, please leave the building immediately. Do not stop, you may not have enough time.

When you go out and you are safe, use a phone and signalize. Wait for fire teams to arrive in a safe place and inform them about the type, size and location of the fire.

If your clothes catch fire, do not run. This will lead to a faster spreading of the fire. Instead of this stop, lie on the ground, cover your face with palms and roll until the fire goes out.

If it is smoked, cover your mouth and nose with a towel or cloth and move low to the ground until you leave the building. Most deaths during fires are due exactly to the effects of smoke. If the door or handle is hot, do not open the door or handle if smoke comes out under and around it, do not open it. This means that the fire is nearby.

If you are locked or blocked in a room, please use strips, wet towels or clothes to plug any cracks and breaks around the door. Please call on telephone number 112 and explain your exact location. You may even leave a sign outside the window to indicate the exact location where you are.


Plan an escape route and make sure everyone knows it. Do not block the exits. They must always be clear and passable. The best route is the normal way for entry and exit of your home. Think about a backup route in case the first route is blocked. Take a few minutes to rehearse the escape plan. Keep the keys from the doors in places where everyone can find them. Set up a meeting place for all family members in a safe place outside the home.


Do not leave the children in the kitchen alone. Keep the matches and pots away from their reach. If you need to leave the kitchen – remove the frying panя from the hotplate or reduce its power.

Be careful if you wear loose clothes. They can be easily ignited. Keep all clothes and towels away from the hot-plates and the grille. The special appliances for spark-feeding are safer for ignition of gas hot-plate than lighters and matches, as they do not have an open flame. Please make sure if you have turned off the hot-plate after you have finished cooking.

Keep electrical appliances and cables away from water. Make sure the toaster is clean and at a safe distance from curtains and paper towels. Keep the oven, hot plate, and grille clean and in good condition. The oil accumulation may cause a fire.

If the oil starts smoking, it is too hot. Switch off the appliance and let it cool down. Use an electric fryer with a control thermostat – this type of fryer cannot overheat.

If the frying pan bursts into flames, do not undertake unnecessary risk. If it is safe, turn off the hotplate. Never throw water on it. Do not extinguish the fire by yourself – go out and call telephone number 112.


First of all, when you enter an unknown building, make sure that the exits are in position, the availability of fire extinguishers – they can be your salvation.

The most common causes of a fire in a public building are:

  • technical failures in electrical, gas and heating appliances and installations;
  • overload of electrical installations;
  • negligence in the use of appliances and installations;
  • failure to comply with safe smoking rules;
  • non-compliance with safe distances between heating appliances and combustible materials;
  • forgotten switched on electrical appliances;
  • children’s game with fire;
  • intent.

Regardless of the causes of the fire, we also must be prepared and to know the right actions:

In the event of fire, immediately leave the building using the stairs or external, stable stairs. Follow evacuation signs. Never use the elevators. If you are in an elevator, get down in the quickest way and use stairs. Do not give up to panic. Try to stay calm and calm down the people around you.

When passing through a smoked area, go near to the walls, move bent, low down – there the concentration of dangerous gases is lower. Place a damp cloth to the mouth and nose, wet your clothing, cover exposed body parts with wet towels. If you feel a rise in temperature, this means you are approaching a hazardous area and it is best to change the direction you are moving around. If some of your clothing ignites, do not run at all, so the flame will spread – stop and knock down the burning cloth.

If you are in a crowd of people, fold your arms in the elbows, tilting back, try to keep the pressure, slowly release your space and move forward. If it is not possible to leave the building, try to climb on the roof or go out at the balcony by closing the doors after yourself. If you are blocked in a room, seal the door with towels and clothes, moist yourself with water so that your body does not overheat. Try to report your location and wait for the rescue teams.

At the earliest opportunity, report the fire to the telephone number 112. Safely explain the address, the size of the fire, your location, are there people endangered and injured, etc. do not interrupt the connection, report about any change in the situation.

If the fire is small, try to extinguish it with the available fire extinguishers, an indoor fire hydrant or available devices (water, wet towels or blankets). Remember electrical appliances, live electrical installations and flammable liquids are not extinguished with water. The most effective and safe are powder extinguishers.

If the space is smoked or the fire continues to spread and blocks the exits, immediately go out as you leave the doors closed. After stay in the area of the fire, you must have a medical examination. If any injuries occur, bring them out in clean air, loosen clothing. The burned areas are covered with clean fabric.


Most often, household fires start with the firing of upholstered furniture, mattresses or beds. When children live with smokers, they are more likely to cause fire because of the presence and easy access to matches and lighters.

If you are a smoker, take the following precautions:

  • If you smoke, go out, blow out your cigarette before you enter back;
  • Never smoke around flammable liquids or medicines;
  • Never smoke in bed, if you are going to bed, do not light a cigarette – you may easily grow sleepy and cause a fire;
  • Do not leave the cigarette ends not extinguished – they may fall on the carpet or the newspaper and they may cause fire and when you extinguish them, make sure that this is really the case;
  • When you are tired, under the influence of alcohol or you have taken medicines, take additional measures – you may fall asleep and forget that your cigarette burns.

Children die every year in fires caused by cigarettes, matches and lighters. Keep them out of their reach. Buy lighters equipped with child protection devices. Use heavy and stable ashtrays that do not turn easily and are made of incombustible material. Shake the ash from cigarettes in the ashtrays, not in the trash can. Do not overfill the ashtrays with ash and cigarette ends.


Use incombustible and stable candlesticks that are hard to turn over. Do not walk around lit candles – your clothes may be easily lit. Only use candles in areas where children and pets cannot reach them. Place them at a safe distance from flammable objects such as blinds and curtains. Never place lighted candles under stands or shelves. Always pass the candles off when you leave the room or you go to bed.


Keep electrical wires and plugs in good condition. Do not overload the electrical system – switch on large consumers (accumulation and cooking stoves, boilers, etc.) in autonomous, heavy duty electrical circuits. Avoid the use of electric connection-blocks and extenders. Always use standard electrical fuses.

Switch off electrical devices when not in use. Do not route cables and wires under paths, carpets and the like. Replace any broken or frayed wires. Check, clean and keep all electrical equipment regularly. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for maintenance.

If the appliance produces a strange smell, produces an abnormal sound or the cables heat up, call up a licensed electrician. Put portable heating appliances, electric stoves, irons and other similar appliances at a safe distance from furniture, curtains, carpets etc. Make sure all electrical appliances are manufactured by licensed manufacturers and meet the relevant requirements.

In emergency situations:

  • If the appliance produces a strange smell or operates in an unusual manner, unplug the appliance from the electrical network, but only if it is safe.
  • If a serious electrical fault occurs in your home, treat it as a fire. Switch off the power supply from the main switch and call the fire service. Report to other occupants. Activate the fire alarm, if any, and immediately leave.


The easiest way to protect your home and family from fire is the smoke detectors. The smoke detector is a stand-alone device supplied by the electrical installation or by batteries which, if smoke is present in the room, alerts by sound-horn. They are cheap, easy to install and have a huge variety of types. They shall be placed on the ceiling or, as a last resort, on the upper part of the walls. Do not place them in or near kitchens and bathrooms where the presence of steam may trigger them in error. For more accurate readings of the air coming into the room, install them at a distance from the air vents.

Many of the fatalities could have been prevented from the smoke detectors. They are the best means of timely alarm and fire detection in the earliest phase. It is desirable that you have one of them on each floor of your home, on the corridor and near any room used as a bedroom. Young children and elderly people sleep deeper, so it is important that there is one detector to each. Test them monthly and replace batteries promptly.

A special detector is required to detect one of the most dangerous gases emitted by fire – carbon monoxide. You should have at least one such detector in your home.


The forest is an important part of the living nature that maintains the planet’s biological balance. It provides shelter for animal species, regulates air currents and rains, protects soils from erosion, purifies the air.

Forest fires cause serious damage to the economy and the environment. They also often lead to human victims. Therefore, we need to know the causes of their occurrence, how to protect ourselves, and how to act in such a disaster. The main reasons for the occurrence of forest fires are negligent, or deliberate human activity or natural phenomena.

The most common causes are:

  • unburned matches and cigarette ends are thrown – once they have fallen into the ripe wheat, the dry plants, and the straw, they can easily ignite them;
  • Negligent handling of fire by workers, shepherds, hikers, tourists;
  • technical failure of machinery and vehicles operating in the forest;
  • children’s game with fire;
  • self-ignition of substances and materials;
  • natural phenomena (lightning);
  • short circuit and failures of electrical transmission lines which pass over and near forests;
  • uncontrolled ignition of household waste or large parts of dry grass vegetation near woodland;
  • intent.

In order to preserve the country’s green wealth, we must strictly observe fire safety rules:

  • The throwing of unburned matches and cigarette ends in combustible and flammable environments is not permitted;
  • All motor vehicles entering the forests must be of a technical good order with an exhaust system preventing the release or discharge of sparks;
  • The fire should not be applied in the forest except in the specially secured areas and marked accordingly. (Before lighting a fire, make sure that you have enough water or other available means of extinguishing it if wind occurs and when leaving the area. Prepare beaters – (pre-set) from a tire or (on-site) green branches to act in the event of a fire.
  • Glass bottles should not be thrown away – defects may have the effect of a magnifying glass, resulting in the ignition of dry grass and plant residues;
  • Fire lighting on high wind is unacceptable – it is capable of spreading sparks and burning particles at large distances, without the possibility of a timely and adequate reaction;
  • The removal of dry branches and waste in forest areas must be done by their carrying at the designated locations-their destruction on-site by incineration is prohibited;
  • To prevent self-ignition, fresh hay must be stored only on bundles after it dries entirely;
  • In order to prevent fires caused by short-circuit of transmission lines under them shall be formed back entries in the forests to be kept free and clear of dry vegetation;
  • Burning the stubble is absolutely prohibited.

Forest owners must be aware that they are obliged to follow and carry out all the forestry activities provided in the forest management regulations.


What should we do if we get into a forest fire?

If you notice signs of a fire in the forest (smoke, burning smell and flames), you need to quickly assess the situation – to be oriented toward the location of the fire, the front and direction of combustion movement and the rate of spread.

If there is a risk of a rapid complication, you must seek a safe way to leave the fire area in the opposite direction to the wind or along lakes, rivers and streams. Once you avoid the initial danger, you must report a fire as quickly as possible on telephone number 112, in a nearby hut or tourist spot, in the local forestry or in the town hall of the settlement.

If you have information about people living near the ignition outbreak, from your timely and accurate message will depend on their lives. If the ignition is in an initial phase, you may extinguish it with earth, sand and beaters of green branches.

It is important to protect your clothes from ignition, especially if they are of artificial fabric and to compulsory protect your airways by wet towels or other personal protective equipment.

The consequences of forest fires are multilateral:

  • Ecological – deforestation and soil erosion. Changing water flow, disrupting the thermal and water balance of ecosystems. Destruction of unique deposits of rare protected species, limitation of biodiversity. Deterioration of the sanitary status of forests. Reducing the CO2-absorption capacity.
  • Economic – Forest resource wastage after years of investment – wood waste. Extraordinary earmarking of funds to mitigate harmful effects. Reducing land productivity and deteriorating growth conditions. Decrease of revenues.
  • Social – worsening of the micro-climate and business conditions. A decline in tourist business. Limiting livelihood possibilities and unification of the population. Depopulation of the areas.



  • Who is calling (your name);
  • Please speak clearly and slowly about the problem: “accident”, are there people injured or endangered, then indicate the address (town, quarter, street, number, crossing street, place, locality or other, by which rescue teams may be oriented);
  • If you have injured people, indicate the number of victims, possibly the type of injuries and, if possible, seek help from passing people, cars or nearby sites.

ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS are a particular category of crisis situations that can cause the death of many people. Unfortunately, they are part of our daily lives.

REMEMBER: The first 5-6 minutes are crucial to saving lives of victims. Therefore, in an automobile accident start with the rescue of people! Notify the ‘Traffic Police’ and ‘Emergency medical assistance’ by phone, stop vehicles passing through and request assistance. Try to assess the condition of the victims and prioritize your actions.


  • self-breathing;
  • preserved heartbeat;
  • injury with profuse bleeding;
  • broken bones and signs of other severe damage.

If circumstances so require, bring the victim on a hard pad /plate/ to a safe location. Do not allow at the victim pulling out of the vehicle the same to be pulled for the head or limbs, as additional and fatal injuries may occur. If you have to carry the victims over a longer distance due to fire hazard or other reasons, do so very carefully, protect the spine and avoid sharp movements.


  1. Bending of the head maximum rearwards (attention for broken neck vertebrae);
  2. Opening the mouth by lifting and pushing the lower jaw forwards with the fingers of both hands, and using the thumbs apply pressure to the chin of the injured person;
  3. Inspect the oral cavity and at availability of any foreign bodies or broken teeth (prostheses etc.) clean it with a finger wrapped with a gauze pad or a clean cloth;
  4. If breathing does not return, start artificial respiration immediately using the “mouth-to-mouth” method or a breathing apparatus at a rate of 16 – 18 times per minute.


Determine the presence or lack of heart beat by pressing the “Carotid” artery on the front-lateral part of the neck. In the absence of pulsation, start an immediate external cardiac down-pressure at a rate of 60-80 presses per minute:

  1. Place the palm of one hand on the lower-third of the sternum with the fingers parallel to the ribs of the victim and press;
  2. Place the palm of the other hand on the first third of the sternum for enhancing the pressure. The pressing shall be carried out with the arms straight in the elbows;
  3. At each pressure, the chest of the injured person shall drop by 3-5 cm.


Where the rescuers are two, one of them places his knees to the side of the victim’s head and makes artificial breathing in accordance with the “mouth-to-mouth” method or with artificial breathing apparatus at a rate of 16-18 times per minute /at 5 cardiac pressures-1 breathing/ and the second rescuer performs external cardiac pressing, by stopping at every five pressing in order to be made air respiration.

When the rescuer is alone, carries out the same actions in the following order – at every 15 presses of the sternum are made by 2 consecutive breaths.


At injury accompanied by abundant bleeding, hemostasis should be immediately carried out:

  1. We press with the fingers the injured blood vessel to the underlying bone;
  2. We tight the limb /over the wound/ with a rubber tube (Esmarch), tourniquet, or a triangular cloth. Place a sheet with the exact time of the manipulation on the dressing!

In the event of injury and burns, dry sterile wound dressing shall be made using a bandage or triangular cloths. In case of sprain, luxation, fracture attempts for fixation of the injured limb are not allowed. At any injury of the bones and joints, the limb is immobilized by means of inflatable /wire/ splints or by available means – boards, umbrellas, etc. The essential requirement is to immobilize at least two adjacent joints of the injury.

In all cases where the victim is unconscious but has some breathing and heart function, it is necessary to place the victim in a sideway stable position.

Initial actions at road accident if you are blocked in your car and/or have suffered:

Evacuate from the vehicle if possible;

If there are other travelers with you, help them to evacuate if it is not possible (if they are trapped by the car structure), do not take risky measures to release them;

Wait for the assistance of the competent authorities;

Secure the crash site with a light-reflecting triangle of 30 m for urban conditions and 100 m for rural conditions;

Disconnect battery terminals;

Do not smoke and avoid any source of ignition (lighters, matches, etc.), as there may be uncontrolled leaking of fuel;

If you are trapped in the vehicle structure, do not move;

Use the fire extinguisher in the vehicle to extinguish a fire;

If the accident happened on a means of transport carrying a dangerous load, avoid contact with the load and, if possible, move away at a safe distance.

THE EARTHQUAKE is a natural disaster that cannot be predicted. Its duration is not long, but the consequences are severe.

In order to prevent human victims and severe material losses, public authorities shall take measures relating to aseismic construction, compliance with construction regulations, preparedness for adequate response and elimination of consequences. However, we must not forget that the proper behavior of each of us can be life-saving.


At home you should have a handy flashlight, a document bag and especially valuable items, a medicine chest with the right medicines, warm clothes, a food and water reserve. Take a “Disaster rack”.

Securely attach furniture at home and do not place heavy, easily falling objects in high places. Store fire hazard substances and poisons in tightly closed containers. Consider and determine the safest place in your home – be aware that at earthquake, the most dangerous are balconies, external walls, staircases and elevators.

Leave the home entrance open and do not block it with objects. Prepare a family action plan. Identify a contact person between family members outside your region.


You should not leave the building you are in. Do so only if you think that you can go out outdoors for about 10 seconds. Take the safest place in the building – under the frame of the door (depending on the type of construction), near an inner /supporting/ wall, a tower, under a stable table or bed. After the first vibrations, the oscillation will increase, keep self-control and do not rush to the elevators and staircases.

If the earthquake crash finds you behind the wheel stop in an open safe area and wait. In public transport, it is better to wait for the end of the earthquake shock in the vehicle. If you are on the street, get away from buildings and transmission lines.


Switch off electricity, gas and water. Take the prepared luggage and leave the building quickly. Climb down ladders, do not use elevator. Give priority to mothers with children and to the elderly people.

After leaving the building, move away to an outdoor place at least at a distance equal to the height of the nearest building. Do not stand under transmission lines, electric, tram and trolleybus networks.

Render first aid if there are injured people around you. Identify the places where there are overwhelmed people. Help, if possible.

Watch the information that will be broadcasted on the mass media and on the local radio stations. Follow the instructions of the bodies of the competent authorities. Comply with public order.


Wait for the broadcasting of information for fading out the earth’s tremors and the passed danger. You can enter your home only after a basic inspection of the building and a check carried out by the competent authorities.

Do not overload phone lines with unnecessary phone calls, tell your relatives briefly that you are alive and healthy.

Observe high personal hygiene and do not drink water from unverified sources. After an earthquake there is a risk of epidemic outbreaks. During disasters, crime increases, be careful, keep your property and report as establishing irregularities.

The FLOOD is a natural disaster where land or an area is temporarily flooded with a huge amount of water, as a result of the increase in the level of water basins and river beds. The causes of the increase in the level of these water basins can be different – such as intense rainfall or snow-melting, dam bursts, disruption of dykes, high waves or human activity.

The floods may cause significant damage in settlements, buildings, cars, bridges, roads and transport infrastructure. Your life or your property may be at risk during floods. In the event of a flood hazard, you will be notified through the early warning and notification systems set up, other specified alerts for the settlement or the mass media. Follow the communications on the radio, TV, local radio stations, and follow the specific instructions according to the situation occurred. Follow the instructions and procedures established by the executive and local authorities and rescue teams.


Please be aware of the risk of flooding in the area where you live or work. Look for information from the municipality or town hall about the areas that may be flooded. Be informed of the nearest safe area, shortest route and safe route on which you should evacuate.

If your dwelling, agricultural building or other property is located in the immediate vicinity of a river and falls within its flood area, look at the weather or level forecast, especially during periods of heavy rainfall or intense snow-melting.

Pre-schedule your family’s actions in the event of a flood. Specify a meeting place for your family members, at relatives or friends outside the flood area, and specify how to communicate between each other. Play the evacuation with the family from your home and with colleagues from your workplace. Participate in organized practices in the settlement or place of work.

Always keep your mobile phone charged at all times. Prepare in advance and maintain a “disaster rack” with the most important for survival materials and tools placed in a comfortable, familiar place for the family.



  • Your name;
  • Loudly and clearly tell what the problem is (flooding, flooded areas, etc.), are there any people who have suffered or are at risk;
  • Specify the address (town, settlement, quarter, street, number, close crossing streer) and do not close the phone before the operator.

In the absence of telephone, alert the municipality or town hall of the nearest settlement and nearby people. Tell your relatives, neighbours and colleagues about the danger.


Switch off gas and electricity. Place at the highest possible place all valuable objects, belongings, herbicides and chemicals.

Take your “Survival bag”, make sure you take your personal documents, precious goods, money (credit, debit cards), notarial acts, insurance policies and other property documents. Leave your home as quick as possible.

If it is not possible to leave the building, move to the upper floors or on the roof. Tell your position to phone 112 or notify your relatives of your location. Keep in touch with rescue teams when they arrive. If the animals cannot be evacuated, open the doors of the rooms where they are closed.


Switch off gas and electricity. Place at the highest possible place all valuable objects, belongings, herbicides and chemicals.

Take your “Survival bag”, make sure you take your personal documents, precious goods, money (credit, debit cards), notarial acts, insurance policies and other property documents. Leave your home as quick as possible.

If it is not possible to leave the building, move to the upper floors or on the roof. Tell your position to phone 112 or notify your relatives of your location. Keep in touch with rescue teams when they arrive. If the animals cannot be evacuated, open the doors of the rooms where they are closed.


If you are close to a high-water river bed or into a gully, immediately move away and move toward the nearest elevation. Do not stand under/over bridges, subpasses, overpasses and other objects from which high water may take you.

Do not attempt to cross. Do not cross rapidly running and flooded areas unless you are sure the water is right up to your knees. Only cross in calm water. Do not cross rapidly flowing and flooded areas without being secured by an aid rope for passage and a safety rope for the body.

Do not drink water from flooded water sources.


When travelling with vehicles, it is recommended to stop the highest and safest possible place and wait for the water level to fall. Do not stop on/under bridges and overpasses, in underpasses and other potentially hazardous for water flooding objects and equipment. Do not cross through rapidly running and flooded areas unless you are sure the water is lower than the axles of your car.


Do not set up residential, agricultural and other buildings in unprotected flood areas of rivers. Do not throw away construction and domestic waste in river beds, this reduces the conductivity of the river bed.

Do not break/puncture the river dikes for water intake for irrigation or other activities.

If you live near a river and notice that the bed and the spaces under the bridges have not been cleared of any waste, construction materials, trees, etc. if there are buildings in the flood areas, report to the municipality, town hall or district administration.

Before we go on a travel, we need to check what the weather forecast is. At announced code for hazardous phenomena it is appropriate to postpone the journey if not urgent. Some roads can be closed due to snowing. It is necessary to provide warm clothing, suitable shoes and gloves when travelling by train. Always refuel your car with more fuel than you need for your trip and choose to travel on first class roads, as they are cleaned of snow with priority. Drive slowly and carefully when you walk around buildings, transmission lines and trees. Comply with the instructions of the competent authorities and the temporary marking provided by the inspection bodies and the road services.

If you encounter trapped cars during the trip, mark the location and notify the road services using telephone number 112. Tie a cloth with a bright colour to the highest part of the car in case of snow sinking. Avoid the continuous engine running at slow idle due to risk of poisoning – shut off the engine periodically.

At forming columns of vehicles blocking, stop at a distance that allows your removal and do not use the emergency road – leave it free for rescue teams.

Help those who fall in trouble. The frozen parts of the body shall be rubbed down with alcohol and slightly massaged. Do not rub with snow – the body is further cooled and the skin may be injured. In the case of frost, the victims must be transported to the hospital. Do not stop resting outdoors, except in populated areas and roadside car parkings and motels. While travelling you should follow the situation on the radio and if the situation becomes more complicated, stop travelling by stopping in the nearest populated area.

In the settlements, ask for assistance the administration authorities of the respective municipality, the police or the road services. At an emergency situation, follow the instructions of the fire safety and public protection authorities on the radio.

When you have to walk, be equipped with proper shoes, warm clothes, gloves and hats. Carry a charged mobile phone and flashlight. Avoid driving individually and stay away from buildings, pillars and trees. Take care to prevent the limbs from being frozen. Take the medicines prescribed by your doctor and warm drinks.

Take great care of the preparation of your car for the winter period – snow tires, snow chains, towing rope, spades, warm gloves, etc. Do not abuse with the signals on phone 112. Do not misuse the signals of unclean road surface. Pursuant to the regulations, snow coverage is permitted according to the different levels and degrees of maintenance.


“Failure” means sudden technological damage to machinery, equipment and aggregates accompanied by stopping or serious disturbance of the process of production, by explosions, fires, environmental pollution, destruction, casualties or threats for life and health of the population.


In the industry are used and stored large quantities of chemical substances which, under certain circumstances – accidents or natural disasters – may become a threat for the health and life of the people. In order to prevent accidents, severe preventive measures are taken, but if they occur, specialized bodies will have an immediate response to manage the situation and to eradicate the consequences. However, we need to know what potentially dangerous sites are in the area in which we live and what we can do by ourselves in the event of a severe accident or a natural disaster, with the result that toxic substances may leak.


AMMONIA is a colourless gas with an acute smothering odour, twice as light as air, forms explosive mixtures. Soluble in water. Ammonia’s vapour forms a white cloud which rises to 20-30 m. Due to the humidity in the air, the cloud is descends again near the ground. The spreading of the ammonia cloud depends on the ground meteorological conditions. The water curtains on the cloud route limit its spread. Ammonia affects the upper respiratory tract and, in greater concentration, the central nervous system. It causes suffocation, severe cough attacks, eye pain, redness of the skin with red spots and blisters, dizziness, stomach pain and vomiting. In cases of severe poisoning, cardiac weakness and death may occur.

The CHLORINE is a highly poisonous gas with a typical acute, suffocating smell, is a yellow-green colour. Soluble in water. It is rapidly evaporating and creating a yellow green cloud that is moving close to the ground and is accommodated in low places and tunnels. To limit chlorine pollution, the leakage site is flooded with water, lime cream, ammonia water and water curtains are created to reduce the dispersion of evaporation. It causes severe irritation of the airways, martyrs cough, chest pain, burning and tearing in the eyes, in contact causes skin burns. At high concentrations, it may cause swelling of the lungs and death.


Mercury is liquid metal, evaporates difficultly, but its vapours are highly poisonous. Bringing mercury into homes is dangerous. By various metals and alloys – gold, copper, silver, brass and bronze, mercury forms amalgam, permanently stays on its surface, evaporates slowly and may cause serious poisoning. At continuous effect of mercury vapour on the human body is mainly injured the nervous system, weakens memory, general weakness, irritability, headache and sleep disorders occur. Falling into the organism by food the mercury and its compounds, affect the heart, red bone marrow, blood vessels, liver, spleen, digestive tract, kidney and skin. If a thermometer breaks or otherwise mercury is decompiled you should take the following precautions:

Spilled mercury is collected with a pump, a sheet of copper foil, a brush or a vacuum cleaner with a retaining filter which is then decontaminated;

The area with spilled mercury is treated with sulphur powder – open the windows to clean the air in the room;

If the mercury has come into the body by mouth, it should be rinsed thoroughly with water – if mercury comes into the eyes, they should be swallowed with plenty of water for 15 minutes and a physician should be contacted immediately;

If children have played with the ‘moving balls’, immediately remove contaminated clothing, bathe children with plenty of water and soap;

At inhalation of mercury vapours the victim is brought into clean air and is left at rest; 

In all cases of poisoning with mercury and mercury compounds, contact a physician-toxicologist.


Живакът е течен метал, изпарява се трудно, но парите му са изключително отровни. Внасянето на живак в жилищата е опасно. С различни метали и сплави – злато, мед, сребро, месинг и бронз, живакът образува амалгама, трайно се задържа върху тяхната повърхност, изпарява се бавно и може да стане причина за сериозни натравяния. При продължително въздействие на парите на живака върху човешкия организъм, се уврежда предимно нервната система, отслабва паметта, появява се обща слабост, раздразнителност, главоболие и нарушен сън. Попадайки в организма чрез храна живакът и неговите съединения, засягат сърцето, червения костен мозък, кръвоносните съдове, черния дроб, далака, храносмилателната дейност, бъбреците и кожата. Ако счупите термометър или поради някаква друга причина разпилеете живак трябва да предприемете следните защитни мерки:

  • Разпилян живак се събира с помпичка, лист от медно фолио, четка или прахосмукачка със задържащ филтър, който след това се обезврежда;
  • Мястото с разпилян живак се обработва със сяра на прах – отворете прозорците, за да се прочисти въздуха в помещението;
  • Ако живакът е попаднал в тялото през устата, тя трябва да се изплакне добре с вода – при попадане на живак в очите те обилно се плискат с вода в продължение на 15 минути и незабавно трябва да се потърси лекарска помощ;
  • Ако децата са играли с “подвижните топчета”, незабавно свалете замърсените дрехи, изкъпете децата обилно с вода и сапун;
  • При вдишване на живачни пари пострадалият се извежда на чист въздух, и се оставя в покой;
  • При всички случаи на отравяния с живак и живачни съединения потърсете лекар-токсиколог.

A risk of RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION may arise from a radiological accident, cross-border transmission or from breach of safety measures when dealing with sources of ionizing radiation. Nuclear power plant security issues are of paramount importance. Continuous radiation control is carried out and extremely stringent preventive measures are taken to prevent an emergency situation of nuclear power plants. Information exchange is taking place through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at the UN, bilateral agreements between neighbouring countries for notification and assistance have been signed.

The probability of an accident occurring at a nuclear power plant is kept to the possible minimum. An accident response organization is provided to support the security. Plans and estimates have been developed and means of individual and collective defence have been provided. In the event of a radiation situation, humans may receive radiation from the radioactive contamination: externally at stay in contaminated region and internally – by inhalation of radioactive air and by food and water. At high radioactivity there is a hazard for the humans but protection from radioactive exposure is possible. The specialized public bodies provide for measures to limit public exposure, but in order to be able to perform more precisely the instructions in each particular situation, it is appropriate that you have preliminary knowledge.



When a radiation accident occurs, with a hazard for the population, you will be informed in due time. The signal is transmitted via national radio stations, national television stations, local radio relaying stations, and other means.

  • Follow the specific instructions of the specialized bodies;
  • If the competent authorities recommend, perform iodine prophylaxis on your schedule. Do not take iodine tablets at your discretion;
  • Be ready to be evacuated as for the purpose keep for the transmitting of the correct signal – put in poIn all cases polyethylene bags ID documents, money, medicines, carried values, set of garments, food for two or three days, drinking water;
  • If you have an anti-radiation shelter in your home, immediately occupy it as in the absence of shelter take measures to seal the doors and windows;
  • Only consume durable and preserved products;
  • Limit the leave of your home, if it is necessary to use a breathing device, anti-powder masks, gauze cloths – after a stay on open-air remove shoes and clothing and keep them separately;
  • Observe personal hygiene rules;
  • Follow the information about the situation on the radio and TV. Follow precisely the guidelines of the specialized bodies.


  • Switch off the electrical, gas, and mains and shut off the stoves, close the doors and windows and lower the curtains, take the most necessary items with you.
  • Evacuation by private transport to a special treatment station will only be allowed if you have previously been given a special evacuation pass.
  • Do not take domestic animals, close the livestock, and leave water and food on the premises for 2-3 days. If necessary, the animals will be further evaluated by the relevant authorities.
  • At the points, at the border of the 30-kilometer area, you will receive instructions for your new residence.



Wash your hands thoroughly, especially before eating, take a bath every day. Breathe through your nose and when you leave through a mask or damp cloth. When entering the home, you should take off your shoes and remove the top clothing, store them separately.


The CHILDREN stay at home until the situation is clarified. Close the windows and seal them well, ventilate only during a quiet time and using a window where you have placed in a 3-4-pieces of cheese-cloth or other piece of cloth. Do not sweep or beat, clean daily with a damp cloth. When using a vacuum cleaner, the outlet stream must be further filtered through a damp cloth. Wash frequently clothes and bed linen, do not dry outdoors. Keep food products in tightly closed containers, follow the instructions and specific measures for their cooking.


Then do not make picnics and walks in nature. Limit the travels, especially on black and dusty roads. It is often necessary to wash the streets and the pavements. Do not sweep the yard, spray with a jet of water the grass surface and pour over the paths around your house. Do not sit on the grass or other green areas. Do not bathe in open reservoirs.


Do not consume any food for which a temporary prohibition has been announced. It is preferable to use the available preserved and other durable food products. If food is to be transported, put it in plastic bags. The preservation of food should take place in cellars, closed larders and niches or in hermetically sealed containers. Treat and prepare food indoors. Remove ramal vegetables and milk from your menu. The glass-grown fruit and vegetables, carrots, potatoes, poultry and pork and ocean fish are relatively safer. Use milk powder for the daily children’s menu. Contaminated food which is not subject to heat treatment, should be only consumed after heavy washing with water and further soak for 24 hours. During cooking, bone and cut meat into pieces by 70, soak it in water (1:4) for 24 hours and discard the water. Boil the meat and throw away the first broth. Drinking and household water should only be taken from sealed, controlled and permitted water sources. It is recommended that children drink mainly mineral water with low radon content.


During the first period of high contamination, animals should not be removed from the cattle, grazing should be discontinued, and feeding should be done with a moistened concentrated or coarse fodder. Wash the boxes and other indoor spaces daily with water. The hay and other fodder which stayed outdoors shall be used after removal of the upper layer (10-15 cm). The fodders yielded during the period should be stored for about 2 months. The crop is harvested in the latest possible agrotechnical periods. To reduce the degree of contamination of the vegetable feedstock, follow the specific instructions given by the competent authorities for handling the products and the time limits for their use.


“Disaster” means any natural phenomenon such as earthquake, flooding, landslides, storms, snow storms, avalanches, specific fires, prolonged droughts and epidemics. Nature of disaster has the radiological, chemical and bacteriological contamination where victims and severe material damage to property or the health and life of the population are caused.



Who is calling (your name);

Please speak clearly and slowly about the problem: “Catastrophe”, “Disaster”, are there people injured or endangered then indicate the address (town, quarter, street, number, crossing street, place, locality or other, by which rescue teams may be oriented);

If injured people are available, indicate the number of victims, possibly the type of injuries, if possible, seek help from passing people, cars, or nearby sites.


The LANDSLIDE is a natural phenomenon, which undermines the stability of huge quantities of earth masses and creates the conditions for their movement. The landsliding processes are not sudden and are appropriate for intervention. They have damping and amplification times over time. Following the activation of the masses of land, a disastrous situation may arise. The reasons for their origin are linked to the strongly truncated relief and other specific geological conditions in certain areas. Preventive measures taken by specialized structures are essential to prevent severe material losses from the intensification of landslides. But each of us needs to know how to protect itself and its property.

Landslides are dangerous. If an increase in ground masses is observed, do not leave or run through landslides regions. Follow the instructions of the specialized bodies.


You need to know the geological features and the level of the underground water of the terrain in which you intend to build. Construction shall be carried out only pursuant to the law in compliance with all the regulations for the execution of the construction and assembly works (CAW). – No high construction density must be allowed without built infrastructure – water supply, sewerage system, draining system.

Ensure a reliable discharge of surface rainwater by sloping, ditches, drain pipes.


  • Emergency measures shall be urgent and shall be carried out as soon as possible after the hazard occurrence. They are undertaken by the specialized bodies, but each of us must respect them:
  • The danger areas are designated and signalled, in the vicinity of the established landslides motor vehicles are stopped, reliable security is provided;
  • Power supply and water supply network in the area shall be switched off;
  • The reason for the landslide process occurrence shall be eliminated urgently;
  • An assessment shall be made of the state of the building stock and engineering infrastructure in the area in relation to the endangered life of the occupants and, where appropriate, the evacuation of the population from the endangered area is organized;
  • Continuous monitoring of the activated landslide area is organized.


Every year, in the end of the summer thunderstorms with lightning and hails are spreading, causing significant material damage and sometimes human casualties. Although today there are ways of protecting people from this natural phenomenon, there is a risk for those who work openly.

If you are in nature during a thunderstorm, try to get away from high trees and single, protruding cliffs. If a dry object is present, sit on it. If you are outdoors, do not lie down or touch the ground with your hands. Squat down as you stick your legs closely. Bend your head down and press your knees to your chest. With crossed hands, cover the ankles of the legs. Keep away at a distance from your neighbour.

The deep caves are suitable for sheltering. Stand at least 3 meters inwards and make sure there is at least a meter of free space on both sides. Do not shelter near or under overhanging rock masses.

If you are on a bicycle, get off it. Do not grab or hold metal objects, they attract thunders. Move away from high voltage lines. Stay away of metal structures, fences, railings and other metal enclosures.

During a car journey, bring in the antenna of the car. If a thunder falls during travel, check the tires of the car if they are burned they may have a puncture.

If the storm comes as a surprise in river, lake or pool, immediately leave the water and move away. If you are with a boat or surf in the sea, quickly go to the beach.

When you are in a house or in the workplace, you must disconnect the TV, the cable from the external antenna, the computer, the VCR and other electrical appliances from the network. Close doors and windows. Stay away from taps, balcony doors, windows.

Immediately lie down on the ground if you feel formication in parts of the body as a result of electrical voltage.

Lightning rods and lightning gaps shall be built to protect against direct lightning strikes. The installation for lightning protection of each building must be periodically checked.

At hail search shelter immediately, large icy pieces may cause traumas and personal injury.


The WINDSPOUT is natural phenomena which is not so common, but known for some regions. It is an atmospheric viper that is moving at a huge speed. It occurs in stormy clouds close to the ground surface, its lower section resembles an inverted funnel. It leads to destruction, possible loss of human life. Strong winds are common phenomenon, in some cases at particularly high speed in the air masses, it is dangerous for the people and may cause material damage.

When a windspout or unusually strong wind occurs, watch the weather bulletins broadcasted on the radio and TV. As with any natural disaster, if you are at home, turn off the electricity, water and gas supply.

Do not stay outdoors. There is a risk of falling debris from buildings and other objects. Enter into your home and close doors and windows tightly. The windspout most often affects the roof structures and the upper floors. Consider and, if necessary, use the building’s basement as a shelter.

If you are away from home, enter a public building, subway, look for a security shelter. If you are on the road, stop the car in an open area away from power lines, trees and from overhanging rock masses. Look for shelter. If you are on the field or in the mountain, take low places and ravines until the danger has passed.


THE SNOW STORMS and ICINGS are phenomena typical for December and January but may occur in the other winter months. Snowstorms and icings lead to destruction of air communications, roads blocking and is possible the life of many people to be put at risk.

It is necessary to monitor the weather bulletin broadcasted on the radio and TV and, if not absolutely necessary, delay the trips, some roads may be closed due to blowings. If you need to go, it is preferable to travel by train. Wear warm clothing and suitable shoes and put water and some sandwiches in your bag.

If you still decide to go by car, check that you have enough fuel, rope, spade, flashlight and chin. Tires must not be pumped, place snow chains. Choose first-class roads, although you travel more kilometres, they are cleaned of blowing with priority. Drive slowly and be careful when you walk around buildings, transmission lines and trees. Comply with the temporary marking provided by the inspection bodies and the road services.

If you encounter trapped cars on the road, mark the location and notify the police or fire service. If you get wrapped down in snow, avoid idle work of the engine because of the danger of poisoning, stop it periodically. Tie a bright coloured cloth on the antenna in order to be noticed. Help those who fall in trouble. The frozen parts of the body shall be rubbed down with alcohol and lightly massaged. Do not scrub with snow – the body is further cooled and the skin may be injured.

Do not stop resting outdoors, except in populated areas and roadside motels. If the situation becomes more complicated, stop the trip by stopping in the nearest settlement.

When walking from one side to another, be equipped with suitable footwear and warm clothes. Avoid moving individually, move away from buildings, electrical power lines, pillars and trees, take precautions to prevent the limbs from freezing. Bring medicines and thermos with tea or other warm and sweetened drinks. In the settlements, ask for assistance the administration authorities, the specialized authorities or road services.

AVALANCHES are the most serious dangers in high mountain areas. They occur most often on slopes with a specific slope and an uneven surface. They remind of a giant waterfall, and the speed of the snow masses can exceed 300 km. per hour. The avalanche snow wave is able to sweep up everything on its way.

Before going on a picnic in the mountain, shall be collected information about the condition of the snow cover, especially the wind. The familiarization of meteorological information and forecasts is a prerequisite. If there is a possibility of avalanche danger, delay the picnic.

In case of fog, it is more likely that you will enter an avalanche, even in places where this can be avoided in clear time. Take a walk with an experienced guide-alpinist. the group’s guide must notify the exact route to relatives, chalets and mountain rescue services.

Coming to the mountain alone is the same as suicide. Even the slightest misery can cause death. Do not have unnecessary courage. The behaviour of the group must be subject to the safety rules. Observe the instructions of the group guide and the discipline applied by the group guide. It shall assess the conditions and take decisions that are binding for everybody.

If you are suspected to be in avalanche region, change the route or return to the exit point in a timely manner. Each Member of the group shall select the clothes, shoes, avalanche cord, ski and sticks that can be used when an avalanche occurs. It is mandatory to wear additional clothing that may help in the event of the body becoming wet or being overcooled.